What is Linux? 

Linux is an open source operating system based on the Linux Kernel. An operating system manages all of the hardware resources associated with your computer or manages the communication between your software and your hardware. Linux is a family of the UNIX-like operating system.

Linux was created by Linus Torvalds in 1991 who made it open source, thus providing the opportunity for people to modify it to their own specification thereby increasing its scalability.

Linux is usually built and packaged in a Linux distribution (or distro for short). Linux Distributions has the Linux Kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. 

Linux Distributions: 

The most popular Linux distributions are:

1. Ubuntu Linux

2. Linux Mint

3. A1rch Linux

4. Deepin

5. Fedora

6. Debian

7. openSUSE

8. CentOS 

Linux Components: 

The components of Linux are as follows: 

Bootloader: This manages the boot process of your computer. Its usually has a splash screen that pops up and eventually goes away to boot into the operating system.

Kernel: This is the main component of the OS called “Linux”. The kernel is the core component of the system and manages the CPU, memory, and peripheral devices. The Linux kernel is the “lowest” level of the Linux Operating System.

Daemons: Daemons are primarily background services (such as printing, sound, scheduling, etc) that either startup during boot, or after you log into the computer.

Shell: This is a command process that allows you to control the computer via commands typed into a text interface usually called Terminal or Command Line Interface.

Graphical Server: It is the sub-system that shows the graphics on your monitor. It is usually called the X server or just “X”.

Desktop Environment: This is the piece of the User Interface that the users actually interact with. There are tons of desktop environments to select from (GNOME, Cinnamon, Unity,  Enlightenment, XFCE, KDE, etc). 

Applications: Linux offers massive various high-quality software that can be easily found and installed. The most popular and modern Linux distributions usually comes with App Store-like tools that centralize and simplify application installation. For instance, Ubuntu Linux comes with Ubuntu Software that works the same way as Windows Store or App Store

Why Use Linux? 

The following are reasons to use Linux: 

Open Source: Linux is a complete Open Source project and that removes away the cost of a license of the operating system. You can have a look at the source code of a Linux OS as it falls under the FOSS category (Free and Open Source Software).

Security: Using Linux on your system is the easiest way to avoid viruses and malware. The steps and methods of package management, the idea of repositories, and a couple more features makes it possible for Linux to be more secure than Windows. Linux programs can't make any changes to the system settings and configuration unless the user is logged in as the root (same thing as the administrator user in Windows) user.

Stability: The Linux operating system is very stable and is not prone to crashes and failures. The Linux operating systems usually runs accurately as fast as it did when first installed, even after several years of usage. The uptime for the Linux operating system is very high and the availability percentage is around 99.9 percent.

Perfect For Programmers: Its the best operating system for developers and programmers. Linux supports almost all of the major programming languages (Python, C/C++, Node, Java, Perl, Ruby, etc.). Furthermore, it provides a vast range of applications useful for programming purposes.

Hardware Compatibility: Linux runs on a range of hardware, right from servers, laptop, mobile to smartwatches. Linux makes use of the system resources very efficiently. Linux installation can be customized for specific users and for specific hardware requirements. It is compatible with most hardware and lower PC ends.

Free: Linux is absolutely free and users do not need to pay any dime to use it. All the basic software needed by a normal user and even an advanced user are available for free with no license fee.

Advantages Of Learning Linux: 

1. It provided practical experience to the usage of commands that manage the activities /processes a user majorly engage in.

2. It introduced shell scripting applicability and other complementary tools to ease its functionality.

3. It also explained the importance of shell scripting as a skill for a Linux system administrator.

4. It taught in depth the management of a system administrator handling of Linux operating system.

5. It provides an unbiased analysis of its different distributions and also an understanding of the various components of each distribution to ease making a choice of which to use.

Linux Course Outline:  

Linux - Introduction

Linux - Installation

Linux - The Big Switch

Linux - Terminal V/s GUI

Linux - Imp Commands

Linux - File Permissions

Linux - Redirection

Linux - Pipes , Grep & Sort

Linux - Regular Expressions

Linux - Environment Variables

Linux - Communications

Linux - Exams and Certification


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