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Computer Networking is the process involved in connecting computing devices for exchange of information and resources over cable media or wireless media. Cable Media are Wires, Network Cables and Optic Cables, while Wireless Media are WI-FI, Hotspot, Bluetooth, GPS, Radios etc.
Computer Networks are digital telecommunications systems that allows nodes or devices to interconnect and share resources. Early networks of computers included the U.S. military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) dating back In the late 1950s.
Computer Networks are classified based on the geographical area that they cover namely:
• LAN : Local Area Network interconnects devices that are not too far from each other, such as a few tens of kilometers apart.
• MAN : Metropolitan Area Network interconnects devices that are up to a few hundred of kilometers apart
• WAN : Wide Area Network interconnects hosts that can be located anywhere in the world.
Another Classification of computer networks is based on their Topology.
Network Topology is the pattern in which devices or nodes such as computers, printers, routers and other devices are connected to a Local Area Network (LAN) or other network via links such as twisted pair copper wire cable or optical fiber cable).
There are four principal Topologies used in LANs:
1. Bus Topology,
2. Ring Topology
3. Star Topology and
4. Mesh Topology
Computer Network Layers: are regarded as the third level of the (OSI Model) - Open Systems Interconnection Model - This layer provides data routing paths for network communication.
Data is usually transferred in form of packets via logical network paths in an ordered format controlled by the network layer.
The Major Layers in Computer Networks are as follows:
1. Physical Layer: This is regarded as Layer 1. The Physical layers is the lowest of the IOS reference model.
2. Data Link Layer (DLL): Regarded as Layer 2. The Datalink Layer is responsible for the node to node delivery of messages.
3. Network Layer: The Layer 3. For transmission of data from one host to the other located in different network.
4. Transport Layer: This is Layer 4. It provides services to application layer and takes services from network layer.
5. Session Layer: The Layer 5. This is responsible for establishment of connection, maintenance of sessions.
6. Presentation Layer: Regarded as the Layer 6. This is also known as translation layer.
7. Application Layer: Application layer is at the very top of the IOS reference model stack of layers.
In this course you will fully understand the Computer Networking Concepts, Principles, Protocols and Practice with Diploma Certificate to document and showcase your knowledge.
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